बुधवार, 15 फ़रवरी 2012

RASAPRIYA-VIBHAVANAM KAVYA IN CONTEMPORARY SANSKRIT LITERATURE

                              The contemporary Sanskrit literature, coming out of classical Sanskrit poetry, has ostensibly a gradual tilt towards modernity, both in style and content.  Manifesting the life of common man, the modern poetry reflects the social & cultural changes, political tendencies & literary movements.  For the same reason it seems somehow different & distinct from the earlier poetry.  The modern poetry is not confined only to India but it has expanded its wings in the open sky.  So that the characters like Tolstoy, Maxim Gorkie, Lenin, George Kenedie etc. are bring picturized in Sanskrit poetry.  Sanskrit poets are visiting foreign countries & creating poetry on them.  The Kavyas like 'Swissdeshvarnanam' & Germanyyatravarnanam' of T.V. Parmesvara Ayyer, 'Sharmanyadesh Sutrām Vibhāti' & 'Thāideshvilāsam' of prof. Satyavrata Shastri, Vimānyatrashatkam', 'Bālivilāsam', 'Bālipratyabhigyān-shalkam' & 'Yavadweepsāhityashatkam' of Prof. Abhiraj Rajendra Misra & 'Dharitridarshanam' of Prof. Radhavallabh Tripathi have opened the new door of horizon, which attracts the vision of foreign readers too.
            Rasapriya Vibhavanam Kavya is composed by Dr. Om Prakash Pandey, a versatile scholar in the field of Indology.  It is a remarkable work in the Contemporary Sanskrit Literature.  It is a collection of three kavyas — 'Rasapriya Paris Radhani', 'Niyati Naiv Smriti' & 'Swatantrya Gatha'; published in the year 2005 from Delhi, India.
            During his teaching assignment in Paris as a visiting professor of Sorbone Nouvelli University in France, Dr. Pandey was fascinated by the charm & beauty of Paris and the luxury & prosperity of its inhabitants Paris has been for him a heroine a Nayika called 'Rasapriya Puri', 'the city who loves flavours' and the only to enjoy on the earth.  The Love God, Kamadeva afraid of Lord Siva did not take rebirth in India but in Paris -
            शिवरोषभयात्‌ पुनर्जनि
            न च लेभे मदनोऽथ भारते।
      दृढ़मेव मतम्मधुना
रतिनाथोऽवततार पेरिसे॥1

            In the nutshell of eleven cantos, the poet has depicted the culture & history of France as well as the beautiful Nature and its changing seasons.
            The poet was attracted by the new world, the world of foreign lands.  He says that Brahma has created the world for many reasons but he has created this part of Europe for pleasure only.
                                    रचितानि बहूनि भूतले खलु राष्ट्राणि विभिन्नहेतुभिः।
                  रचिता प्रणयाय केवलं विधिनैषा धरणी धरातले॥2
           
The whole atmosphere of Paris is full of love & pleasure there the nights and days and every pathway of city may be seen full of romance.
            अनुरागमयी विभावरी ह्यनुरागैरपि पूरितन्दिनम्‌।
      ह्यनुरागमयं प्रतिक्षणं प्रतिरथ्यं हि मया विलोकितम्‌॥3

            The poet has expressed the contrast of India & France.  The one is inclined to spirituality and the other is renowned for romantic mood.
            परमेशरतौ रूचिर्भवत्यथ गच्छन्ति जना नु भारतम्‌।
      रमणीप्रणये रुचिर्हि चेद्‌ इह देवोऽपिसमुत्सुको भवेत्‌॥4
           
The concept of marriage and family system has declined there and the people are not moreover interested in this social system -
      इयतीपरिवारचेतना लघुभूता नगरेऽधुना नवा।
      जनकौ वसतेऽपरे गृहे तनयोऽस्मिन्‌ पुर एव दूरतः॥
      अधुना न विवाहबन्धने रुचिरास्ते-युवावृन्दमध्यगा।
      तरुणो रमते यथेच्छया तरुणीभिः बन्धनं विना॥5

            In the third canto the poet has described France, its seas, rivers Ron & Sen, its mountains Jyur & Alps, the Reveyara State, the city of Lu etc.  The river seine attracts everyone, which seems like a necklace of green gems on the chest of Rasapriya -
            रसप्रिया वक्षसि शोभमाना सुनिर्मला सेन तरङ्गिणीयम्‌।
      हरिन्मणिग्रन्थितकण्ठहारा प्रतीयते मङ्गलमाचरन्ती॥5a
           
In his imagination the hexagonal earth of France represents the six flavours enjoyed by the world as well as six system of Indian Philosophy :
      यथा रसै षड्‌भिरयं लोकस्तथाऽऽस्तिकानां मतिषट्‌क्रमेतत्‌।
      तथैव षट्‌कोणसमन्वितेयं, वसुन्धरा फ्रान्सगता विभाति॥6
           
The poet has minutely observed the Nature and changing seasons of France.  He has depicted the picturesque landscape scenery of all the seasons.  In sharadrtu, the yellow and red leaves and the flowers fall from the trees.  They look like a heap of gold on the ground -
      शरदागमने तरौ तरौ
            रुधिरक्लिन्नपलाशराशयः।
      पतितैर्छदनैर्हि मेदिनी
                        प्रतिभात्येव सुवर्णराशीव॥7
           
The nature seems just like a widow lady without any alankaras.  The poet has used a new simile which shows tenderness as well as cruelty of nature-
      लतिका लतिका तरुस्तरु-
            श्छदहीनत्वमुपैति सत्वरम्‌।
      कुसुमैः सुफलैश्च वञि्‌चता
                        विधवेव प्रकृतिर्दिगम्बरा॥8
           
The fourth canto is significant for the purview of social cultural aspects of France.  The inhabitants of Paris celebrate many festivals with great zeal.  They think them the recreation of life.9 In this context the poet has described the birth of the Christ, the great saint -
      हृदये हृदये प्रतिष्ठितः
            करुणाया अमरः सुविग्रहः।
      प्रतिवर्षमिहोत्सवः परः
                        शिशिरर्तौ जनता युयुक्षति॥10
           
New year is celebrated with great enthusiasm & ecstasy by illuminating the houses paths & national highways.  The first Nov. is celebrated in the memory of Saints and the ancestors by offering flowers to them.11  The 'Mother's Day' is celebrated in the memory of honourable Mother Merry.12
            At one place the poet seems impressed by Tantrāgam.  According to him the whole creation is expansion of the play of Prakriti-Purush.  Shiva & Shakti are the eternal elements in creating the universe.  Without Shakti, Shiva is nothing but only Shava -
            प्रकृति पुरुषेण भूतले सह लीलां तनुते निरन्तरम्‌।
      अपि शक्तिकृपाबलः शिवः शव एवैष विना हि तत्कृपाम्‌॥12a
            The sixth canto is description of prosperous and magnificent capital of France that is Raspriya Peris.  It seems just like beautiful bride in the coverlet of new dress -
      नवाम्बरा नूतनाङ्गरागै-
            र्मनोरमा कापि वधूर्नवेव।
      विभाति भूमौ नितराम्मनोज्ञा
                        रसप्रिया पेरिस राजधानी॥13
           
The most ancient but the quite new the earth of Paris presents freedom equality, brotherhood and humanity in the flavour of one cap -
      इयं धरा पुण्यमयीतिहासे
            लिलेख या शोणितमातृकाभिः।
      स्वतन्त्रतासाम्यसुबन्धु भावो-
            ज्ज्वलं नवं मानवकल्पशास्त्रम्‌॥
      इयं धरा फ्रान्सनिधेर्निधानी
            चिरन्तनी चापि नवा पुराणी।
      समग्रफ्रान्सप्रतिबिम्बभूता
            मनोहरा मञ्‌जुलरङ्गभूमिः॥14
           
'Chirantani chapi Nava Purani' memorises the beautiful 'USHA' the rgvedic goddess in it.  It reflects the Vedic effect on the poet.
            The beauty and magniflorence of Paris, the grandeur of its history, the great revolution of France is the sublimity of the country.  The river Sen (6/14-17) the University of Paris (6/18).  Lubra Museum of Art Creations (6/18-29) Eiffel Tower (6/21) the painting of Momalisa the world beauty (6/29), the rich library the statues built at the pathways & gardens, the idol of Jean D'Arc etc. reveals the aesthetic sense of the poet. Gothic Architecture of France is famous. The poet has depicted its sculpture & architecture.
      सदनं सदनं समुन्नतं गगनस्पर्धिगृहाश्च भास्वराः।
      सुखशान्ति समृद्धिसंयुताः प्रथयन्त्येव सुशिल्पशेमुषी॥15
           
The aesthetic sense of the poet is quite appreciable.  The picturization of the statue of Jean D' Arc arrests the vision of every reader -
            करयोः करवाल मुष्टिका नयने दीप्तिमये विलक्षणे।
      हयपृष्ठशोभिता पुरे प्रतिमा शौर्यमयी विराजते॥15a
           
There is the reference of the great thinkers of France Valtayer & Jyanpaul.  The poet has surprisingly recalled the glorious history of Jean D'Arc a seventeen year old daughter of a farmer, who has struggled for the freedom of France from Britishers.  Her astonishing martyrdom inspired the French youth to move to revolution.  The poet says
      न सुन्दरी काचनराजराज्ञी न नर्तकी कापि कलानिधानी।
      तथापि जाँ दार्क समा किशोरी बभूव नान्या दृढ़ा मतिर्मे॥16
           
In the eight canto the injustice and torture of sixteenth Louis, the history of Napolean and De Galle is described which is the example of Poet's deep study.
            The French people has great love for sanskrit & they study Ved Vedanga philosophy & philology etc.17
            In France, the eminent scholars as Francois pons, Bournouf, Maxmuller, Bergaine, Louis Renou, Jean Filliozat, Madam Caillet have enriched the Sanskrit Literature.
            France is a secular country where churches, temples and mosques are found in every city.18 Social harmony is the peculiarity of France -
      न च लिङ्गगतैव भिन्नता
            ममता सैव कुमारकन्यकयोः।
      पुरुषेण सहापि भामिनी
                        समतामेति पदे पुनः पुनः॥19
           
In fact there is no comparison of Rasapriya Puri to heaven because that is only imagination & Rasapriya is reality -
            न तुल्यतामेति रसप्रियायाः पुरी दिवः सापि पुरातनीव।
      यतो हि सा केवल कल्पनास्ते रसप्रिया तिष्ठति सत्यमेव॥19a
           
Every citizen of Paris will be pleased to see the Latin moto "Fluctut Nee Mergitar il Flatte mais ne sombre pas (The boat waves but does not sink) in Sanskrit Language -
            ''तरणी जलधौ विकम्पते बहुधा नैव परं निमज्जति''
           
In eleventh canto the poet has expressed pride over India where the character is more valuable than wealth -
            वृत्तं विभाति सुतरान्न वित्तमस्यां भूमौ भवन्ति विभवेन भवे मनांसि।
      स्वेच्छावृत्ता लसति निर्धनतापि यत्र तद्‌ भारतं नैवमनक्ति रूपम्‌॥
           
The poet has expressed Sringar Rasa as well as Veer Rasa in a natural way comprising delight in this kavya.
            The minute observation, delicacy and simplicity of style, poetic expressions warmth and colour, vastness of aesthetic vision, the perfection and the sequence of thoughts, nobility and richness of conception, emotional & sensuous appeal, the exchange of Indo French thoughts are the unique qualities of this Kavya.
            Pierre Sylvain Filliozat has admired it by saying everything looks classical.  But is also modern Prof. Radha Vallabh Tripathi has praised the picturization of France as well as the Indian culture and its pride.20
            Niryati Naiv Smriti (निर्याति नैव स्मृतिः) is a Laghu Kavya or Khand Kavya The poetry reveals the sweet memories of a village youth.  It is utterance of deep and heart felt truth.  It comes near to vital Truth.  Its emotional & sentimental touch, well stored experiences of life, representation of problems and disharmony of the present age make pathetic even the intellectuals.  It is also the symbol of modern youth who goes out of his village, state or country, in search of higher studies or job and may not be able to come back to home, in unavoidable conditions.  The poet says
      ग्रामाद्‌ याति युवा न वृत्तिरहितो यात्येव तद्‌यौवनम्‌
      आशा याति दिशा प्रयान्ति तमसाऽऽच्छन्नं नभोदृश्यते।
      विद्या याति बलं प्रयाति सकलं ग्रामाद्‌ भविष्यन्तथा
      ग्रामे किञ्‌च सखे! विषण्णा हृदयं वार्धक्यमेव स्थितम्‌॥21
           
It depicts the story of a youth who goes to Bombay in search of job and there he get married forgetting his beloved in the village.  When he comes back at grown up age they both met.  She has lost her husband & is spending her colourless life.  She makes him known all the conditions of village & his family.  He remembers every incidence of life.  He recalls rainy season & his house surrounded by water, the mother wandering hither & thither from one room to another to protect her children from the water falling from the roof.  It shows the misseries of the village life -
      ग्रामस्यवसतिर्मृदा विरचिता वर्षर्तुकालश्च सः
      वीथ्यः पङ्कजलाविलाश्च सततं स्कन्दज्जलन्तद्‌ गृहम्‌।
      वारं वारमहो! निशीथसमये क्लिन्नाश्च कन्थाश्च मां
      रक्षन्तीमधुना स्मरामि जननीं कक्षाच्च कक्षांगताम्‌॥22
           
His beloved tells him about the death of his father the illness and aloofness of his old mother which symbolies, the pitiable conditions of old persons in villages.  Prof. Rajendra Misra has marked it the 'Rasāyanamrta' of Kavya.
      रोगाक्रान्ततनुर्जरा परिकरः स्वल्पश्च जीर्णं गृहं
      कान्ताप्रेमवशीकृता च तनयौ रिक्तान्नभाण्डाकरः।
      एकैकश्च मृताजिरेषु पश्वो दैवप्रपन्ना कृषिः
      अम्बा तत्र यथाकथञि्‌चदपि तत्सर्वसहा जीवति॥23
           
He repents hearing it that he has done nothing for his family and spent the life aimless -
      अहो वृथा मे जनिरेव भद्रे!
            फलं न किञि्‌चन्मम जन्मनोऽद्य।
      कृतम्मया ग्रामहितं न किञि्‌चत्‌
                        कुलस्य पित्रोश्च निवृत्य तत्र॥24
           
The poet has depicted the reality of hard life and it is quite true that memory never goes from the heart just like a Tapasvini.
            Prof. Rajendra Misra appreciated it in these words -
            ''एतादृशं मर्मस्पर्शिवर्णनं संस्कृतकवितायां नाधिकमवलोक्यते। सुशिक्षिता युवानोऽर्धाङ्गिवशीकृता न स्मरन्ति जन्मदात्रीं न पितरं न चापि जन्मभूमिम्‌। ग्रामे ते एवावशिष्टा ये सर्वथाऽकिञ्‌चत्करा सर्वथा जर्जराश्च। संयुक्तपरिवारपरम्परा भग्नप्रायाऽवलोक्यतेऽध राष्ट्रे।24a
           
The words of Prof. Radha Vallabh Tripathi are quite true.
            ''तथा वैदेशिकजीवनस्य अन्तर्विरोधान्‌ मनुष्यस्य भवितव्यतां भव्यतां भास्वरतां च भावयन्ति विभावयन्ति च मानवीयसम्बन्धानामूष्माणं गरिमाणं महिमानं च।''24b
           
'Swatantraya Gatha' is full of nationalism.  It is a narrative tales of heroic characters of India as Prithviraj Chauhan, Rānā Sangrām Singh, Chatrapati Shivāji, Mangal Pāndey, Rāni Laxmibai, Tātyan Tope, Chāhlariking Balbhadra Singh, Rāna Beni Madhav, Lokmānya Tilak, Bhagat Singh, Azād, Veer Savarkar, M.K. Gāndhi, Jawāharlal Nehru, Sardār Patel etc. freedom fighters full of patriotic feelings.  The quality of Brave person is -
      क्वचिज्जयं क्वापि पराजयं वा
            लिलेख धाताऽपि ललाटपट्‌टे।
      ये दीक्षिताः क्रान्तिमखेषु धीराः
                        जयाजयाबव्यथिताः सहन्ते॥25
           
Besides it Maharshi Dyanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekanand, Bhagini Nivedita etc. social reformers are also described.
            There are many lyrical composition full of imagination & luscious description.  In another kind of gnomic verses 'Subhashita' where significant ideals incidents of life and a sublime sentiment are expressed.  The world of beauty is remote or at least different from the world of morality & truth.  It is duty of poet to be true to his own-self and to art and to express the visions, he sees as best as he can.  In this reference Dhvanyaloka III canto contains the following instructive remark -
            सदाचारोपदेशरूपा हि नायकादिगोष्ठी।
            विनेयजनहितार्थमेव मुनिभिरवतारिता॥
           
The poet has revealed the same idea very well in
'पेयं सदुक्तिवचनामृतमत्र सिद्भि:'
            The rhythmic & musical quality of the verses are quite appreciable -
            अष्टसिद्धिं न नानानिधिं कामये
      नापि कौवेरकं शेवधिं चिन्तये।
      ईप्सिते वै पदे पुण्यदे मण्डले
      आहृते देवलोकेऽपि भूमण्डले।
            त्वां विना नीरसा मन्यते स्वर्णदी
            त्वां विना व्यर्थतामेति तन्नन्दनम्‌॥26
            In fact the great subtle and musical rhythms of the poetry with their attractive and beautiful imagination make this Kavya highly cultivated type of poetic creation with modernity and presents a good image of the unity of modern India throughout the world.
            Dr. Pandey is certainly appreciable who has presented the Vedic thought & modern trends in one His Kavya has reached its acne of perfection.  It indicates the new creations in the contemporary Sanskrit Literature.
REFERENCES :
1.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    2/29
2.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    2/7
3.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    2/8
4.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    2/9
5.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    2/24-25
5a.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/11
6.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    3/2
7.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    3/21
8.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    3/22
9.         Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/3
10.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/12
11.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/17-19
12.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/28
12a.     Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    4/27
13.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    6/1
14.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    6/6-7
15.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    6/48
15a.     Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    7/6
16.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    7/10
17.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    10/8
18.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    10/9
19.       Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    9/14
19a.     Rasapriya Paris Rajdhani    6/4
20.       Preface of the Kavya                      
21.       Niryati Naiv Smriti              9
22.       Niryati Naiv Smriti              92
23.       Niryati Naiv Smriti              104
24.       Niryati Naiv Smriti              106
24a.     नान्दी वाक्‌ - प्रो0 राजेन्द्र मिश्र
24b.    Niryaati Nair Smriti - प्रो0 राधा वल्लभ त्रिपाठी
25.       Niryaati Naiv Smriti -50
26.       'त्वां विना शून्यमाभाति मे जीवनम्‌'
Reference books:
  1. Rasapriya Vibhabanam Kavya - Dr. Om Prakash Pandey, Nag Prakashak, New Delhi.
  2. Sanskrit Vangmaya Ka Vrihad Itihas (Adhunik Kavya Khand) Part VII- Edited by Prof. Jagannath Pathak, Pub. U.P. Sanskrit Snsthan, Lucknow.